Effect of Modified Oat Starch and Protein on Batter Properties and Quality of Cakes
Starch and protein separated from oat were chemically modified using cross-linking and acetylation protocols for starch, and deamidation and succinylation for protein isolate. Cross-linking decreased swelling power of starch, whereas syneresis increased, but cross-linking does not have a significant effect on gelatinization temperature. Acetylation increased swelling power, but gelatinization temperature and syneresis diminished. Deamidation and succinylation increased nitrogen solubility index, emulsion activity, foaming capacity, and water and oil binding capacity. Emulsion stability did not change with deamidation and it diminished with succinylation, while foaming stability decreased with both treatments. Acetylated starch and two types of modified proteins were substituted for 5, 10, 15, and 20% of oat flour to bake cake samples and then physical properties of the cakes were measured. Acetylated starch increased batter viscosity, cake volume, and whiteness of cake crust. Increased level of deamidated protein produced cakes with lower batter viscosity, higher volume, and darker color (increase in redness). Application of higher levels of succinylated protein led to higher batter viscosity and lightness, and lower cake volume. Therefore, substitution of deamidated protein and acetylated starch can improve cake properties.