Optimization of Enzymatic Synthesis of Cocoa Butter Analog From Camel Hump Fat in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Response Surface Methodology
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) has been studied as a medium for esterification of camel hump fat and tristearin in producing cocoa butter analog using Immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Process conditions (pressure, temperature, tristearin/camel hump fat ratio, water content, and incubation time) were optimized by conducting experiments at five different levels using the response surface method (RSM). A second-order polynomial response surface equation was developed indicating the effect of variables on cocoa butter analog yield. Contour maps generated using the response surface equation showed that all the experimental variables significantly affected the yield. The pressure, 10MPa; temperature, 40 ◦C; SSS/CHF ratio, 1:1; water content, 10% (w/w); and incubation time, 3 h were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the maximum yield of cocoa butter analog.