Characterization of wheat gluten subunits by liquid chromatography Mass spectrometry and their relationship to technological quality of wheat
The quality of common wheat is largely influenced by the composition of its storage proteins. The currently presented research explores factors influencing observed differences in quality and quantity between wheat cultivars, in particular in relation to gluten composition and its relationship to technological characteristics. Eight wheat cultivars (H. Wieser, Seilmeier, W., Belitz, H.D., 1994 Parsi, Sirvan, Sivand, Pishgam, Pishtaz)were selected for evaluation. Analysis results demonstrated that Morvarid and Sirvan cultivars yielded the highest quality of wheat, while the Chamran cultivar was indicated as the most favorable for baking Taftoon bread. Conversely, the Sepahan cultivar was deemed to have the worse quality in both categories. A Q Exactive LC-MS/MS system was employed to evaluate the most effective sub-fractions of gliadin and glutenin on wheat quality. Matching peptides resulting from trypsin digestion on gliadin and glutenin fractions, led to the identification of subunits a/b-gliadin, g-gliadin, HMW-Dx5, HMW-Bx17, HMW-Dy3, HMW-Dy10, HMW-By15, LMW-m, LMW-s, and LMW-i. The obtained results indicated that the most influential subunits of glutenin on wheat quality were Dy10, Dy3 and Dx5, while the most effective gliadin subfraction was noted to be a/b-gliadin However, the most important subunit influencing the quality of flat breads in particular was identified as the x-HMW-GS, in particular the Bx17 subunit, and LMW-GS.