A Study on Parameters of Potential Cocoa Butter Analogue Synthesis from Camel Hump by Lipase-Catalysed Interesterification in Supercritical CO2 Using Response Surface Methodology
A potential cocoa butter analogue was prepared from camel hump fat and tristearin by enzymatic interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC–CO2) using immobilised Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, tristearin/camel hump fat ratio, water content, and incubation time on TAG distribution of cocoa butter analogue. The process conditions were optimised by conducting experiments at five different levels. A second order polynomial response surface equation was developed to indicate the effect of variables on TAG distribution of cocoa butter analogue. Overlaid contour plots generated using the response surface equations showed that all TAG components of cocoa butter analogue are significantly affected by the experimental independent variables. The pressure of 10 MPa; temperature of 42 C; SSS/CHF ratio of 1.15:1; water content of 10% (w/w); and incubation time of 3 h were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the most similar cocoa butter analogue to the corresponding cocoa butter.